Analysis on the development trend of contemporary housing

The dwelling is the basic carrier of human life. The so-called "eating, dressing, living, walking", most of the actions need to be carried out in the dwelling. It can be seen that the dwelling is indispensable for human life. The development level of residence is a comprehensive manifestation of factors such as a region ’s history, culture, geography, people ’s living standard, and social development level.

At the same time, residence is also an important component of a country and an urban space. It is the basic style and religious humanities of a region. Express directly [1]. With the progress of society and the continuous development of human civilization, people's requirements for houses are not only the initial function of sheltering from the wind and rain, resisting severe cold, and avoiding wild animals, but also put forward various aspects of their functions, structure, form, materials, etc. Different requirements have led to the emergence of residential buildings of different styles, forms and materials.

1 Characteristics of urban housing Urban residences in China show a trend of continuous development towards high-rises. According to the characteristics of high-rise residences, suitable structural forms are concrete structures, steel structures, and steel-concrete hybrid structures. Among them, concrete structure buildings generally include frame structures, shear wall structures, The frame-shear wall structure is the main type. This kind of house has good rigidity, relatively low cost, less deformation under the action of wind and earthquake, and has better privacy and living comfort. It is in line with the common living habits of the Chinese people, and has won It has become the main architectural form of residential construction since it has been favored by consumers.

2 Features of rural housing Also known as farmer's residence. In rural areas, in addition to houses for peasants' daily living and living, there are generally houses for agricultural and sideline production, machinery and equipment storage, and most of them have houses for production and living. China has a vast territory and many ethnic groups, and the peasant houses in various places often reflect the local ethnic culture and local characteristics.

3 Comparison of Chinese and Foreign Residences Restrained, connotation. The so-called introvertedness is implicit and unassuming. Western architecture is arranged with the living room as the center and spread outwards. Outside the courtyard is the garden, which is open, emphasizing the individual facing nature. The Chinese-style residence is converging inward, and various spaces are arranged around the independent courtyard, which is in line with the personality characteristics of the Chinese. The connotation is to carry a rich history. It can be said that a building and a symbol have a history and a story. Chinese-style houses usually contain rich Chinese history, culture, and ethics concepts.

4 Modern housing issues The spatial form cannot adapt to the changes in modern family structure and people's living habits. Most of the traditional houses in our country are built with the big family of the fourth generation as the family structure background. With the development of transportation and communication technology, the scope of people ’s activities is far from the past. People in the same family often live on different sides and live in different places. Cities, coupled with the elderly ’s demand for independent space, the housing needs of modern society have become more background with a family of three. At the same time, people's living habits have undergone major changes. The privacy and comfort of traditional Chinese-style houses are poor, and the layout of kitchens and bathrooms is unreasonable. They can no longer meet the modern people's requirements for the comfort of residential products. Defects in environmental protection, energy saving and land use.

Most of the traditional Chinese-style residences are in the form of single-story houses and courtyards. The land utilization rate is low, which consumes a lot of land resources and has a large external surface area, which is not conducive to heat preservation and energy saving. In addition, the wooden structure used in traditional Chinese houses consumes a large amount of wood, which is not conducive to environmental protection and sustainable development. Traditional Chinese-style residences have relatively expensive materials, and gatehouses, curved roofs, etc. have greatly increased construction costs. The classic symbols of Chinese-style residences, such as wood carvings, stone carvings, brick carvings, and flower windows, are complicated. They are mostly made by hand, and cannot meet the requirements of mechanized construction And the need for mass construction.

Traditional Chinese-style dwellings mostly embody the ethics of feudal society, and are also tools for maintaining feudal ritual systems. Requirements for living comfort. 5 Urban Housing Development With the expansion of the city, the building gradually expanded to high altitude. While the construction industry improves the functions of the residents' living environment, it also affects the ecological environment during the entire life span of architectural planning, design, construction, operation, maintenance, demolition or reuse. The development of green buildings has become an inevitable design development of the residential construction industry.

Trend [2]. The demand for urban housing in China has changed from the initial quantitative demand to the demand for both quality and quantity. This is mainly because with the development of economy and the continuous improvement of living standards, people have higher and higher requirements for quality of life, so they value the comfort of living more. Residential design should implement the applicable, economic, safe, beautiful, and environmentally friendly construction guidelines and the "people-oriented" guiding ideology. Based on the living behavior of modern families, rationally organize indoor space, increase the utilization of indoor space, and strive to improve the residence The use of functions.

The development direction of contemporary residential design is mainly reflected in the following aspects: First, develop "green ecological housing". In recent years, with the development of the real estate market and the improvement of people's living standards, the design of residential buildings no longer simply focuses on the rational layout of planning planes, but pays more attention to the concept of healthy ecology. Many real estates have launched the concepts of "health" and "ecology" as selling points. Improve the health factors, ensure the physical, psychological, moral and social adaptability of residents to multiple levels of health needs, promote the sustainable development of residential construction, and create a comfortable and healthy living environment.

At the same time, during the construction process, we must pay attention to the coordination with the environment, so that the building and the natural environment coexist. When planning and designing buildings, keep valuable ecological elements to the greatest extent, interfere and destroy the natural environment as little as possible, reduce pollution, construct scientifically, adapt to local conditions, design reasonable building types, and select those with little interference to the surrounding ecological environment Building materials, reduce pollution, consider the building and surrounding greening in an all-round way, and reduce energy consumption, so as to minimize the impact of the designed building on natural factors. The design of green ecological residential buildings emphasizes the environmental impact of the building and the energy-saving design of the building itself.

In architectural design, we strive to minimize environmental pollution during the construction process. At the same time improve resource utilization and reduce energy consumption of buildings. The effective use of energy is one of the most important issues considered in the design of green ecological buildings. Improving the utilization of energy and using efficient and non-polluting energy are the primary considerations. To this end, building designers should design reasonable building plans based on local climatic conditions

[3]. Through the selection of various factors such as the layout, orientation and shape of the building community, make full use of the local climatic conditions, use pollution-free energy, and adopt new energy. Make full use of high-efficiency energy sources such as solar energy and solar lamps. Second, modern architectural design also pays attention to the appearance of residential buildings and pursues the shape of buildings. Residential buildings often appear in groups. The direction pursued by modern residential buildings should be based on the overall situation, consider the coordination of the exterior design and the surrounding architectural environment, coordinate with each other and be able to accommodate the surrounding environment, coexist with the local environment, and avoid considering only its own facade effect. Ignore the factors of the surrounding environment; at the same time, the color design of the residential building group should pay attention to the color and the surrounding environment theme to be consistent, the layout of the plan and facade are subject to change, on the premise of meeting the requirements of ventilation and lighting, it is patchy and complementary.

The separation of the interior space can be treated in accordance with the functional requirements. With the diversification of applied materials, three-dimensional, planar, interpenetrating, intersecting up and down, plus lighting and lighting, light and shadow, light and dark, virtual and real, simple and complex furnishings And various methods such as space tortuosity, size, height and artistic modeling can produce a variety of space separation. Third, the diversification of house design, housing design should consider the diversity of market demand, with diversified house types to meet the growing personalized housing needs of consumers, and can adapt to the flexible household structure due to consumer family stage The layout adjustment caused by the change makes the housing have a longer service life.

In recent years, residential design has paid more attention to scientific and rational design and distribution of residential units, and strives to have a good orientation, landscape and ventilation environment, reduce the number of elevator services in the building, and minimize interference between households. Fourth, residential buildings pay more attention to reasonable and practical functions and complete supporting facilities. To improve the beautiful inner living environment, including the architectural space that meets the aesthetic standards, convenient living system, safe living environment, and complete and thoughtful service facilities, we need to start with many details to create a good house. At the same time, people began to pay more and more attention to the environmental quality of the living space around them. Therefore, residential buildings pay more attention to the internal quality of the building itself and the residential area, as well as the functionality and convenience of the residential area and surrounding environment. Improving the configuration level of residential equipment is also an inevitable requirement for people to pursue a high-quality life.

6 Rural housing development In addition to satisfying strength, stiffness, stability, and durability, more emphasis is placed on earthquake resistance, disaster prevention, and theft prevention. In addition, rural houses are often not equipped with protective fences, and the defense awareness is weak. As a result, burglars easily enter the house and rob theft. It should be based on the needs of farmers ’living and production at different levels in rural areas, and have a certain sense of advancement to meet the needs of sustainable development. For rural housing, we emphasize more on adapting to local conditions and selecting materials locally. Fully embody the "three sections" principle of saving materials, saving land and saving energy [4]. At present, some places are blindly pursuing the "modernization" of large areas, high floors and decoration, and some places think that the new rural houses should be simple, silly, large, dark and rough. We must proceed from reality, strengthen policy and technical guidance, and guide farmers to work hard to improve the quality of residential functions; we must fully consider the characteristics of China ’s large population and small land, and rural houses should mainly start with the transformation of existing houses; Rural housing should guide from decentralized to appropriate centralized construction, rational planning, reasonable layout, and reasonable construction; strict control should be carried out, as little as possible of low-level independent houses should be built, and parallel, row, and combined courtyard-type low-rise buildings should be promoted and promoted Housing, in qualified rural areas, it is necessary to promote the development of multi-storey apartment houses; to guide farmers to understand the basic requirements of the hygienic conditions of housing space, to choose a reasonable height and reasonable combination of housing; to guide farmers to pay attention to the basic requirements of the human settlement Reasonable layout, choose building shapes suitable for local characteristics;

guide farmers to adapt to local conditions, choose materials locally, and choose appropriate decoration. In short, we must guide farmers to consider the long-term development of rural areas and the interests and needs of farmers. Efforts should be made to improve the functional quality of rural residences and create a lively living environment, convenient production, clean, fresh and warm home environment for the majority of farmers. At the same time, we must pay special attention to the protection and construction of ecological environments such as natural landscapes and cultural landscapes to ensure the sustainable development of the rural economy, society, environment and culture

[5]. Housing forms are gradually diversifying. Urban-type housing is suitable for a small number of families who are separated from agricultural production. The half-work and half-agricultural housing is not only attached to the original housing design characteristics, but also a step towards urbanization. Agricultural housing is suitable for households who do housework all year round. The housing area is slightly larger and fully functional. There is good sunshine and ventilation. Overall planning and design are standardized. From the state of unmanaged, unplanned and undesigned in the early 1980s, rural housing has gradually implemented the stage of unified planning, centralized housing and unified construction. The quality and functional requirements of housing are gradually increasing. In the past, Yijuan housing had problems such as unreasonable architectural layout, poor adaptability and variability, poor thermal insulation performance, construction quality, rough decoration and installation. For newly built housing, due to economic and customs reasons, the requirements for living environment, living conditions, and living quality have also gradually increased. The functional zoning is gradually rationalized to achieve complete sets. The design is gradually scientific and reasonable, the functional partition is gradually rationalized, and the complete set of functions is complete.