The application prospect of green building in the construction of new countryside
For a long time, the energy consumed by buildings in human production and life is particularly huge, and the energy waste caused by it is also quite amazing. In industrialized developed countries, building energy consumption has accounted for 40% to 50% of the country's main energy consumption. The contemporary society has put forward the theory of "sustainable development" when dealing with environmental degradation and resource depletion. The key pursuit of the sustainable development concept is the harmony between man and nature, and its core idea is to focus on the ecological rationality of various economic activities. But it is more of a policy-oriented macro control framework, specifically on the "operational level of the construction field, the principle of sustainable development requires the use of various ecological building technologies to achieve the re-optimization of the building and environment." Therefore, how to improve the building as soon as possible The current status of energy consumption to save non-renewable energy has become a top priority. Among them, ecological building theory and green building are undoubtedly an important guiding direction and technical support. The widespread application of green building technology in rural areas is of great significance for reducing building energy consumption and at the same time can better protect the rural ecological environment. .
1 New rural settlement
Under the guidance of the concept of "ecological harmony and sustainable development", the current rural needs to conduct a comprehensive study on the relationship between rural residential buildings and space based on the scientific theory of green buildings to explore the use of green and low-cost building energy-saving technologies for the residential environment, The comprehensive impact of comfort, so as to find an economically feasible green building design strategy that is in line with the actual conditions of the current rural area. (The low-cost building energy-saving and low-tech involved in this article pay more attention to meeting the living needs and economic affordability of farmers, rather than Discrimination against technology in rural areas), so as to achieve the goal of designing the lowest energy consumption and cost according to local conditions.
2 The concept of green building
Green building is a form of architecture proposed on the basis of the coordinated development of man and nature, the artificial environment and the natural ecosystem, which condenses human architectural culture, ecological civilization and ecological wisdom. Green building refers to “saving resources to the greatest extent (energy saving, land saving, water saving, material saving, etc.), protecting the environment and reducing pollution during the entire life cycle of the building, and providing healthy, suitable and efficient use space for human beings. Buildings that coexist harmoniously with nature. "Green buildings pursue the harmonious coexistence of architecture and nature, meet the needs of users, maximize the protection of the ecological environment and achieve ecological benefits, and reflect the care for the future. Therefore, green building is essentially an architectural form that pursues ecology, reduces energy consumption, and sustainable development. Its main purpose is to live in harmony with the earth. As a designer, you should first have the concept of environmental ethics, combine the building with appropriate technology, and adopt the energy recycling mode of low energy consumption to achieve high efficiency, to minimize the energy consumption of the building from construction to the entire life cycle, and Conducive to the reuse of building materials.
3 Green Building Technology
When talking about green building technology, we must first clarify a point-the suitability of building technology. Foster once pointed out: "It's not fashionable to talk about technology, but I don't know, how can you not make things? And this is where technology is, that is, our culture." Every step of the development of architecture in any era is closely related to the bold application and expansion of the advanced technology and structure of the architect at that time. Technology plays a more important role in contemporary society and even becomes a contemporary cultural feature. Architecture must also use technology as a key issue. Under the premise of analyzing contemporary technology, if the characteristics and differences of the technology used in architecture are used as the classification criteria, it can be divided into three levels: low technology, intermediate technology (or light technology), and high technology. This classification standard helps to understand the relationship between technological complexity, economics, and popularity. (1) Low technology refers to the technology used in building construction based on the traditional building technology, according to resource conditions and social productivity at the time. The source of today's low technology is traditional architecture, which focuses on digging traditional energy-saving, ventilation, utilization of indigenous materials and other aspects of experience and technology from local architecture and local architecture, and technological improvement, without or rarely using modern technical means to To achieve the purpose of building ecology. The form mainly emphasizes the local and local characteristics. (2) Intermediate technology is because it is not limited to the time and space of the type of technology, and on the basis of the above low technology, using the principles and equipment of modern technology, through in-depth architectural design, to improve the efficiency of the use of the environment and resources, Reduce the waste of non-renewable resources to protect the ecological environment. At the application level, it tends to use research results and industrial products of modern science and technology, and does not exclude traditional low technology. The core of the intermediate technology is to select the appropriate technology form according to the economic and environmental conditions of the building. (3) High-tech refers to actively advocating the use of the latest contemporary technological achievements to solve the problems of ecological building design. And the latest technology in other fields, such as information technology, electronic technology, etc., transplanted in accordance with ecological requirements and the theme of high-tech applications. Even if some traditional technical methods are used, they are based on scientific analysis and implemented with advanced materials and processes. The three levels of technology are not absolute concepts here, but relative and dynamic concepts. Intermediate technology is high technology compared to low technology, and relatively high technology is low technology. At the same time, technology is also developing dynamically, and technology between different levels will transform with each other as the socio-economic technology develops. Many places of traditional architecture reflect the ecological point of view, which is formed by people gradually groping in the process of adapting to the environment for a long time, and the building technology on which they are based is often the most simple and intuitive natural law and practiced for thousands of years Summary of experience. Compared with modern architecture, low technology has good popularity, simple and intuitive, easy to master and apply, and low cost. The low technology of traditional buildings is mainly restricted by social productivity. The construction model needs to combine the natural climate and geographical resources of the region to show harmony and unity with nature. For many of the above reasons, the low-tech design methods of traditional buildings retain and continue more traditional factors, carry more cultural information, and are also the most technically integrated with nature, using the least technical means to transform nature. To achieve a comfortable and suitable living environment, at this level, the low-tech characteristics of traditional buildings are a branch of research direction in green building technology.
4 Examples of green energy-saving buildings
The case studies on green energy-saving buildings are mainly concentrated on the relevant energy-saving buildings in Germany. The energy-saving plans in residential buildings in Germany mainly include: active solar energy utilization and other renewable energy utilization. And the application of these energy-saving methods to the building has formed-low-energy buildings, near-zero energy buildings, all-zero energy buildings. One of the building techniques made us feel particularly profound, that is, "lime sand blocks" and foam concrete blocks. The external walls of masonry in Germany are very similar to the external walls of China. The basic modulus of the block is the same. It was originally mainly made of solid clay bricks, and later developed into hollow clay bricks, but clay bricks are all mined. Destroying vegetation also consumes a lot of energy to sinter and release harmful gases. The lime sand brick block can be formed at 200 degrees Celsius and steam curing for several hours, without high temperature sintering. Foam concrete blocks do not need to be sintered, which greatly reduces the environmental pressure, and the raw materials can be reused. At the same time, the mechanical and thermal properties of the blocks formed in this way are better than clay bricks. Low energy consumption is a kind of practical energy-saving building that can be popularized in the world, and the technology is relatively mature. Energy-saving building is a kind of energy saving mode that is explored in the process of use after the building is completed. In terms of green building technology, it is a study of the life cycle of the building. The zero-energy-consumption building experiment in Germany shows that the energy required by the building does not need to be provided by an external system, but can be obtained from solar and geothermal resources only by the building itself, so this kind of building is also called a solar self-sufficient building. The design mainly starts from the architectural design, the construction of the exterior walls and windows, the ventilation system, the roof photovoltaic cell and the electric power system, and the hot water system. By complementing and complementing each other, the building achieves zero energy consumption; In design, pay attention to the depth of the building as small as possible, so that the heating energy consumption is small; the construction of external walls and windows must first avoid the occurrence of "thermal bridge effect", as well as the wall insulation, thermal insulation performance and wall construction The choice of body materials; ventilation is directly related to the comfort of building use. This is particularly important. The design should reduce the wind speed as much as possible. The method of indoor ventilation should be based on the indoor temperature to choose whether natural ventilation or passive air intake or exhaust At the same time, with the heating system to ensure that the indoor temperature is constant within a range, so as to create a comfortable indoor environment; roof photovoltaic cells and power systems mainly use solar cell systems and hydrogen-oxygen battery systems to provide energy and heating for buildings, which To a certain extent, it can be self-sufficient, provide a good power supply for the building and keep the indoor temperature constant; Mainly in the solar water heater is the master device, is insufficient solar energy in the winter, the battery system may be utilized hydrogen to provide heat to the water heater. In fact, after the building is put into use, there are often many ways to save energy. Solar energy is just one of them. Although traditional buildings cannot achieve complete zero energy consumption, suitable technologies can be used to reduce energy consumption during the use of buildings, such as biogas, and the use of local materials to enhance the thermal insulation performance of buildings. Therefore, when designing green buildings, we must first carefully examine the current situation around the building, which technologies and conditions are conducive to energy saving, and which can provide energy; if conventional mature technologies can be used, it may be carefully compared with high-tech, which is more economical Reliable; at the same time, it is necessary to find a balance point in thermal engineering, which not only reduces energy loss but also increases energy gain, and strives to maximize energy saving benefits.
5 Prospects of green building technology in new rural construction
Green building technology focuses on the entire life cycle of a building, from building materials to the reuse of construction waste after the full life cycle of a building. This is an important aspect of green building technology research. Admittedly, this is only considered from the perspective of materials used for space construction. In the process of using building space, what kind of attention should green buildings pay to buildings? The author believes that the energy consumption of buildings and the ecological nature of buildings should be considered first. 3. The three aspects of the impact of architecture on the environment. In the construction of the new countryside, the transformation of the countryside from the traditional residential model to the modern residential model will inevitably lead to changes in the way of living and changes in architectural concepts, that is, from traditional decentralized living to the new rural centralized, dense, residential Living form. Traditional residential buildings are the products of people's long-term adaptation to the natural environment, and they often use simple and economical technologies to achieve the purpose of production, living and living. In the construction of new rural areas, we must be guided by the concept of green building technology, follow the principles of sustainable planning and design, try our best to integrate with regional characteristics, make full use of nature without destroying nature, and make people and the ecological environment live in harmony. Therefore, in the early stage of construction, the regional characteristics, local climate and geographical conditions should be fully considered, and local construction materials should be investigated and studied; and these factors should be considered in the architectural design process in an effort to achieve a combination of the building and the surrounding environment. Design and nature combine. In the technical design of construction engineering, systematic analysis and reasonable and scientific planning should be made for the project to minimize the impact of the construction on the natural environment. At the same time, for the various physical properties of the building, corresponding assessments, such as lighting and ventilation, also need to be made. , Thermal insulation, thermal insulation, shading and other physical properties. In addition, it is also necessary to analyze the local light environment and whether it is suitable to use solar energy. Biogas in rural areas is also a new type of environmentally friendly energy. It also needs to be given attention in the design process.
In short, in the current tide of new rural construction, building design should focus on the ecological environment and sustainable development, and should make an overall consideration of the entire life cycle of the building, and strive to make the building energy consumption and nature The impact is minimized, so that the building materials have a reusable function. Therefore, it is not difficult to believe that under the scientific guidance of the above "green building technology concept", the combination of nature, compliance with nature, and the use of various green building designs and the universal application of green building technology will inevitably further promote people and Harmony of resources, environment, society, ecology and the earth.